SNMC Heritage: Maliki Madhab/ Fiqh School
The Mālikī school was founded by Malik ibn Anas in the 8th century. The Maliki school of jurisprudence relies on the Quran and hadiths as primary sources. Unlike other Islamic fiqhs, Maliki fiqh also considers the consensus of the people of Medina to be a valid source of Islamic law.
The Maliki madhhab is one of the largest group of Sunni Muslims, comparable to the Shafi`i madhhab in adherents, but smaller than the Hanafi madhhab.[Sharia based on Maliki doctrine is predominantly found in North Africa, West Africa, Chad, Sudan, Kuwait, Bahrain,UAE), and in northeastern parts of Saudi Arabia.
The Mālikī school primarily derives from the work of Malik ibn Anas, particularly the Muwatta Imam Malik, The Muwaṭṭa relies on Sahih Hadiths, includes Malik ibn Anas’ commentary, but it is so complete that it is considered in Maliki school to be a sound hadith in itself. Mālik included the practices of the people of Medina and where the practices are in compliance with or in variance with the hadiths reported. This is because Mālik regarded the practices of Medina (the first three generations) to be a superior proof of the “living” sunnah than isolated, although sound, hadiths.
The Maliki school differs from the other Sunni schools of law most notably in the sources it uses for derivation of rulings. Like all Sunni schools of Sharia, the Maliki school uses the Qur’an as primary source, followed by the sayings, customs/traditions and practices of Muhammad, transmitted as hadiths. In the Mālikī school, said tradition includes not only what was recorded in hadiths, but also the legal rulings of the four rightly guided caliphs – especially Umar.