Types of Parental Involvement:

Parents could play many roles in the education of their children at home and as partners within the school and the community. Many researchers have developed frameworks to describe the major types of parental involvement. I will share with you the framework suggested by Joyce Epstein, Ph.D. She concludes from her study that there are six types of parental involvement:

Type One – Basic Obligations of Parents – parenting: It is necessary to provide a good parenting to enhance children’s health and safety; prepare children for school; teach family life skills through the school years, and to build positive home conditions that support school learning and behavior.

Type Two – Basic Obligations of Schools – communication: Through communication, parents learn about school programs and children’s progress. The frequency of communications via memos, notices, report cards, and conferences helps to improve parents’ understanding of school programs and children’s progress.

Type Three – Parent Involvement at School – volunteering: The volunteers assist teachers, administrators, children in classrooms and in other areas of the school; parents may attend student performances, curricular activities, sports, attend workshops and other educational programs for their own education and training.

Type Four – Parent Involvement in Learning Activities at Home – learning at home: The parents initiate activities or children initiate requests for help; teachers share ideas and instructions with parents for monitoring and assisting their children at home in learning activities coordinated with the children’s classwork.

Type Five – Parents Involvement in Governance and Advocacy – decision – making: The parents have decision-making roles in the PTA (Parent Teacher Association or PTO (Parent Teacher Organization), advisory councils, or other committees or groups at the school, district, or state level. They also are activists in advocacy groups, monitor the schools and work for school improvement. This is the one that I have encouraged Muslim parents to get engaged for almost two decades.

Type Six – Parents collaboration with the community: Identifying and integrating resources and services from the community to strengthen school programs, family practices, and student learning and development.

These types of engagements of parents resonate our traditional approach in Islam to raising our children!